A river, lake or
dam is a natural watercourse, usually
or another river.
The chemistry of the
water has a large impact on the ecology of that water for both
and it also affects the uses that may be made of the river water.
increasingly managed for
as they are critical for many
birds of prey,
migrating birds, and many
Due to low maintenance cost and effective removal of
biodegradable organic matter biofiltration and ozonation is becoming
attractive drinking water treatment method. It decrease the presence of
disease causing microorganism and disinfection byproducts in drinking water
The operation of water treatment facilities may seriously compromise safety,
sustainability and cost efficiency of water supply system. Even more it will
compromise public health.
Natural Organic Matter in water is a major concern and should be removed
from drinking water
Objective and scope:
ozonation is introduced in more and more water treatment
plants as a replacement of primary chlorination in order to control the
formation of chlorination by-products. Because ozone is a strong oxidant, it
can be used not only for disinfection but also for removal (oxidation) of
organic substances. Ozone is used for the treatment of water polluted with
pesticides or other anthropogenic substances. Ozonation can be combined with
UV and H2O2 treatment
in order to increase the oxidation power. Such advanced oxidation processes
The principle of biofiltration is to utilize bacteria and protozoa, which
are Attached to the surface of filter materials, to clean water from
undesirable substance in drinking water. The biofilters are used for removal
of biological organic matter, iron, manganese, sulfate, nitrate, pesticides,
taste and odor causing substances and algal metabolites. . In groundwater
and small surface water treatment plants, ozonation- biofiltration may be
used as the only unit processes The process often includes pre-ozonation to
provide primary disinfection and also to aid coagulation/flocculation.
After coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation or filtration or both, an
intermediate ozonation is often applied for disinfection. This is usually
followed by biofiltration where granular activated carbon is normally the
filter media, and a disinfection step.
Chemtronics providing water treatment process in which ozonation is combined
with rapid filtration though media populated with bacteria.