Commercial Water Softner
Water Filtration

Water Softner

Water Softener

The process of removing divalent cat ions, usually calcium or magnesium, from water. When a sample of water contains more than 120 mg of these ions per liter, expressed in terms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3),  it is generally classified as a hard water. Hard waters are frequently unsuitable for many industrial and domestic purposes because of their soap-destroying power and tendency to form scale in equipment such as boilers, pipelines, and engine jackets. Therefore it is necessary to treat the water either to remove or to alter the constituents for it to be fit for the proposed use.

Water described as "hard" is high in dissolved minerals, specifically calcium and magnesium. Hard water is not a health risk, but a nuisance because of mineral buildup on fixtures and poor soap and/or detergent performance. Hard water is

Water Softener FR

Water Softener FR

Fiber Glass Reinforced Plastic (FGRP) composite vessels are 1/3 the weight of carbon steel, strengths are directly comparable to steel, no maintenance & high aesthetic appearance.

• High performance Composite material
• Thermoplastic liner of polyester – wall thickness 3.8 mm 
   to 7.6 mm as per vessel diameter
• 100 % corrosion resistant
• Excellent bonding between inlet & PE liner
• Better curing at high temperature
• 200 mm to 1,000 mm diameter
• All are top opening & dia 450 mm onwards top &
   bottom opening
• 450 mm onward flange fitting
• Operating Pressure – 10.5 kgf/cm2
• Operating temperature – 490 C
• 250,000 times cycle test from 10 psi to 150 psi
• Vessels are NSF & PED certified

Water Softner FR Series
Water Softener MS

Water Softener MS

Mild Steel (MS) water softener are commonly used across the world for following applications :
• Filter high quantity of water.
• Thermoelectric power plants.
• Boiler feed water
• Cooling tower.


Water Softener MS Series

Sources of Hardness Minerals  

In case of underground water, as water moves through soil and rock, it dissolves very small amounts of minerals and holds them in solution. Calcium and magnesium dissolved in water are the two most common minerals that make water "hard." The degree of hardness becomes greater as the calcium and magnesium content increases and is related to the concentration of multivalent cations dissolved in the water..

Indications of Hard Water

Hard water interferes with almost every cleaning task from laundering and dishwashing to bathing and personal grooming. Clothes laundered in hard water may look dingy and feel harsh and scratchy. Dishes and glasses may be spotted when dry. Hard water may cause a film on glass shower doors, shower walls, bathtubs, sinks, faucets, etc. Hair washed in hard water may feel sticky and look dull. Water flow may be reduced by deposits in pipes.

Dealing with hard water problems in the home can be a nuisance. The amount of hardness minerals in water affects the amount of soap and detergent necessary for cleaning. Soap used in hard water combines with the minerals to form a sticky soap curd. Some synthetic detergents are less effective in hard water because the active ingredient is partially inactivated by hardness, even though it stays dissolved. Bathing with soap in hard water leaves a film of sticky soap curd on the skin. The film may prevent removal of soil and bacteria. Soap curd interferes with the return of skin to its normal, slightly acid condition, and may lead to irritation. Soap curd on hair may make it dull, lifeless and difficult to manage.

When doing laundry in hard water, soap curds lodge in fabric during washing to make fabric stiff and rough. Incomplete soil removal from laundry causes graying of white fabric and the loss of brightness in colors. A sour odor can develop in clothes. Continuous laundering in hard water can shorten the life of clothes. In addition, soap curds can deposit on dishes, bathtubs and showers, and all water fixtures.

Hard water also contributes to inefficient, costly operation and maintenance of water-using appliances. Appliances like dish washing machine, coffee & soft drink vending machines, ice cube machines use very fine jets & delicate rubber parts in solenoids & pumps. These jet nozzles gets checked & solenoids & pumps gets leakages problems with hard water. Heated hard water forms a scale of calcium and magnesium minerals that can contribute to the inefficient operation or failure of water-using appliances. Pipes can become clogged with scale that reduces water flow and ultimately requires pipe replacement.

Interpreting Test Results

The hardness of your water will be reported in grains per gallon, milligrams per liter (mg/l) or parts per million (ppm). One grain of hardness equals 17.1 mg/l or ppm of hardness.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes standards for drinking water which fall into two categories -- Primary Standards and Secondary Standards.

Primary Standards are based on health considerations and Secondary Standards are based on taste, odor, color, corrosivity, foaming, and staining properties of water. There is no Primary or Secondary standard for water hardness. Water hardness is classified by the U.S. Department of Interior and the Water Quality Association as follows:


mg/l or ppm



0 - 17.1

0 - 1

Slightly hard

17.1 - 60

1 - 3.5

Moderately hard

60 - 120

3.5 - 7.0


120 - 180

7.0 - 10.5

Very Hard

180 & over

10.5 & over

Water softening units can be permanently installed into the plumbing system to continuously remove calcium and magnesium. Water softeners operate on the ion exchange process. In this process, water passes through a media bed, usually sulfonated polystyrene beads. The beads are supersaturated with sodium. The ion exchange process takes place as hard water passes through the softening material. The hardness minerals attach themselves to the resin beads while sodium on the resin beads is released simultaneously into the water. When the resin becomes saturated with calcium and magnesium, it must be recharged. The recharging is done by passing a salt (brine) solution through the resin. The sodium replaces the calcium and magnesium which are discharged in the waste water. Hard water treated with an ion exchange water softener has sodium added. According to the Water Quality Association (WQA), the ion exchange softening process adds sodium at the rate of about 8 mg/liter for each grain of hardness removed per gallon of water.

For example , if the water has a hardness of 10 grains per gallon, it will contain about 80 mg/liter of sodium after being softened in an ion exchange water softener if all hardness minerals are removed.

Because of the sodium content of softened water, some individuals may be advised by their physician, not to install water softeners, to soften only hot water or to bypass the water softener with a cold water line to provide un softened water for drinking and cooking; usually to a separate faucet at the kitchen sink.

Softened water is not recommended for watering plants, lawns, and gardens due to its sodium content.

Although not commonly used, potassium chloride can be used to create the salt brine. In that case potassium rather than sodium is exchanged with calcium and magnesium.

Before selecting a mechanical water softener, test water for hardness and iron content . When selecting a water softener, the regeneration control system, the hardness removal capacity and the iron limitations are three important elements to consider.

There are three common regeneration control systems. These include a time-clock control (you program the clock to regenerate on a fixed schedule); water meter control (regenerates after a fixed amount of water has passed through the softener); and hardness sensor control (sensor detects hardness of the water leaving the unit, and signals softener when regeneration is needed).

Hardness removal capacity, between regenerations, will vary with units. Softeners with small capacities must regenerate more often. Your daily softening need depends on the amount of water used daily in your household and the hardness of your water. To determine your daily hardness removal need, multiply daily household water use (measured in gallons) by the hardness of the water (measured in grains per gallon).

Example: 400 gallons used per day X 15 grains per gallon hardness = 6,000 grains of hardness must be removed daily.

Iron removal limitations will vary with water softener units. If the iron level in your water exceeds the maximum iron removal capacity recommended by the manufacturer of the unit you are considering, iron may foul the softener, eventually causing it to become plugged.


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